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Preliminaries.


Notation.

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<fn>, <f>

Field of any type.

<o>

Offset (Numeric variable or literal).

<l>

Length (Numeric variable or literal).

<n>, <m>, <p>

Numeric field.

<c>, <str>

Character string.

<m>

Argument.

<fstring>

Field String (in other words - structure).

FSTRING-<component>

Component of field string (in other words - field of structure).

<g>

Code Page (Conversion table).

<sc>

Sort code.

<N>

Number format.

<itab>

Internal table.

<wa>

Separate work area (can be used instead of header line for internal table).

<idx>

Index (for internal table).

<parm>

Parameter (for selection screen).

<selopt>

Selection Option (for selection screen).

<range>

Range.

<sel>

Selection (Selection Option or Range).

<pid>

SAP memory ID (up to 3 characters).

<mobj>

Matchcode object (Data Dictionary) (4 characters).

<FS>

Field Symbol (angle brackets are part of the syntax).

<dbtab>

Table of Logical Database.


Literals.

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A literal is a fixed value.

Text Literals

Text literals are sequences of alphanumeric characters enclosed in single quotation marks:

·         'Hello, world!'

·         'Victor''s Home Page.'

Can be up to 254 characters long. If a text literal contains a quotation mark, you must repeat it to enable the system to recognize the contents as a text literal and not as the end of the literal.

Numbers Literals

Number literals are sequences of digits that may contain a leading sign. They can contain up to 15 digits:

·         151163

·         -1917

·         +4

Non-integer values or a longer numbers can be defined as text literals which is converted to the correct type automatically (see Conversion Rules):

·         '151163151163151163151163'

·         '+4.5'

Likewise, text literal represents a floating-point value. This must have the following format:
'[<mantissa>][E][<exponent>]'

·         '1E77'

·         '+1.5E-12'


Elementary Data Types.

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Data type

Initial size

Valid size

Initial value

Description

Comments

C

1

1-65535

SPACE

Character

 

N

1

1-65535

'00..0'

Numeric text

 

D

8

8

'00000000'

Date YYYYMMDD

 

T

6

6

'000000'

Time HHMMSS

 

I

4

4

0

Integer

Range from -2**31 to 2**31-1. Rounded, not truncated.

F

8

8

0

Float

Range is 1x10**-307 to 1x10**308.

P

8

1-16

0

Packed

Two decimal digits are packed into one byte, while the last byte contains one digit and the sign. Up to 14 digits are allowed after the decimal point. If the program attribute Fixed point arithmetic is not set, type P fields are interpreted as integers without decimal places. The DECIMALS parameter of the DATA statement only affects the format of the WRITE output.

X

1

1-65535

X'00'

Hexadecimal

 


Correspondence between ABAP/4 Dictionary Data Types and Elementary Data Types.

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ABAP/4 Dictionary Data Type

Derived Elementary Data Type

Comments

ACCP

N(6)

 

CHAR n

C(n)

 

CLNT

C(3)

 

CUKY

C(5)

 

CURR n, m, s

P((n+2)/2) DECIMALS m [NO-SIGN]

 

DEC n, m, s

P((n+2)/2) DECIMALS m [NO-SIGN]

 

DATS

D

 

FLTP

F

 

INT1

No correspondence

 

INT2

No correspondence

 

INT4

I

 

LCHR n

C(n)

 

LRAW n

X(n)

 

LANG

C(1)

 

NUMC n

N(n)

 

PREC

X(2)

 

QUAN n, m, s

P((n+2)/2) DECIMALS m [NO-SIGN]

 

RAW n

X(n)

 

TIMS

T

 

UNIT n

C(n)

 

VARC n

C(n)

 


Specifying Offset Values for Data Objects.

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Offset/Length Extensions for the Assignment/MOVE/WRITE TO Operators:

<f>[+<o>][(<l>)].
where o=offset and l=length of the field portion.
Can be on both the left and right parts of an operator.
Can be variables in MOVE or WRITE TO or assignment statement and must be literals in mathematical expressions.
Can be used in WRITE, WRITE TO, MOVE TO, ASSIGN TO, COMPUTE, PERFORM.


Conversion Rules.

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Elementary Data Types:

Source:

Target:

C

D

F

N

P

T

X

C

Left-justified. Padded with blanks or truncated.

Only 'YYYMMDD'

Only valid F-literal

Only digits are copied. Compressed on the right and padded with zeros.

Source must contain the representation of a decimal number, i.e. a sequence of digits with an optional sign and no more than one decimal point. Source can contain blanks. If the target is too short, an overflow may occur. This may cause the system to terminate the program.

Only 'HHMMSS'

Valid characters are 0..9,A..F. Left-justified, padded with zeros or truncated.

D

Left-justified. No conversion.

No conversion.

->P->F.

->C->N.

->number of days since 01.01.0001.

Not supported. Syntax check or Runtime error.

->number of days since 01.01.0001.

F

Converted to the <mantissa>E<exponent> format. Mantissa lies between 1 and 10 unless the number is zero. Exponent is always signed. If the target field is too short, the mantissa is rounded. The length of the character field should be at least 6 bytes..

->P->D.

No conversion.

->P->N.

->I and rounded, if necessary.

->P->T.

->P->X.

N

No conversion.

->C->D.

->P->F.

Right-justified. Padded with zeros or truncated.

Packed, right-justified with a positive sign. If the target field is too short, the program may be terminated.

->C->T.

->P->X.

P

Right-justified to the character field, if required with a decimal point. The first position is reserved for the sign. Leading zeros appear as blanks. If the target field is too short, the sign is omitted for positive numbers. If this is still not sufficient, the field is truncated on the left. ABAP/4 indicates the truncation with an asterisk (*). If you want the leading zeros to appear in the character field, use UNPACK instead of MOVE.

Represents the number of days since 01.01.0001 and is converted to a date in YYYYMMDD format.

Accepted as F.

Rounded if necessary, unpacked, and then transported right-justified. The sign is omitted. If required, the target field is padded with zeros on the left.

Right-justified. If the target field is too short, an overflow occurs.

Represents the number of seconds since midnight and is converted to a time in HHMMSS format.

Rounded if necessary and then converted to a hexadecimal number. Negative numbers are represented by the two's complement. If the target field is too short, the number is truncated on the left.

T

Right-justified. No conversion.

Not supported. Syntax check or Runtime error.

->P->F.

->C->N.

Converted to the number of seconds since midnight.

No conversion.

Converted to the number of seconds since midnight.

X

Left-justified. Padded with zeros.

Represents the number of days since 01.01.0001 and is converted to a date in YYYYMMDD format.

->P->F.

->P->N.

Interpreted as a hexadecimal number. It is converted to a packed decimal number and transported right-justified to the target field. If the hexadecimal field is longer than 4 bytes, only the last four bytes are converted. If it is too short, a runtime error may occur.

Represents the number of seconds since midnight and is converted to a time in HHMMSS format.

Left-justified and filled with X'00' on the right, if necessary.

Type I is always treated in the same way as type P without decimal places..

Field Strings:

Compatible:

Component by Component.

Non-Compatible Field Strings and Elementary Fields:

System first converts all the field strings concerned to type C fields and then performs the conversion between the two remaining elementary fields.

Field Strings with Internal Tables as Components:

Field strings which contain internal tables as components are convertible only if they are compatible.

Internal Tables:

Internal tables are only convertibles to other internal tables. Internal tables are not convertibles to field strings or elementary fields. Internal tables are convertible if their line types are convertible.

·         Internal tables that have internal tables as line types are convertible if the internal tables that define the line types are convertible.

·         Internal tables that have line types that are field strings with internal tables as components are convertible only if the field strings are compatible.

Alignment of Data Objects:

Fields of type I or F are aligned. Field strings containing type I or F components are also aligned and filler fields may be inserted in front of them. The system normally aligns fields and structures automatically during their declaration.


Formatting Options.

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All Data Types

Numeric Types

Date

LEFT-JUSTIFIED

NO-SIGN

DD/MM/YY

CENTERED

DECIMALS <n>

MM/DD/YY

RIGHT-JUSTIFIED

EXPONENT <n>

DD/MM/YYYY

UNDER <f>
Starts outputting field in the same column from which field <f> was started.

ROUND <n>

MM/DD/YYYY

NO-GAP

CURRENCY <c>
Currency <c> in table TCURX. System sets the number of decimal places according to the entry CURRDEC in TCURX, ignoring real decimal places in the number. If <c> not found, default setting of 2 used.

DDMMYY

USING EDIT MASK <mask>

UNIT <unit>
<unit> in table T006 (column MSEHI) for type P. The entry in column DECAN then determines the number of decimal places of the field to be displayed. If the system does not find the entry <unit> in T006, it ignores the option. Restrictions:

  • field to be displayed must be a packed number (type P);
  • If field has less decimal places than the <unit>, option ignored;
  • If field has more decimal places than the <unit>, option used only, if the operation does not truncate any digits unequal to 0.

MMDDYY

USING NO EDIT MASK

 

YYMMDD

NO-ZERO
(blanks instead of 0)

 

 

 

Mask:

Meaning:

==mask

ABAP/4 Dictionary Edit Mask

'_'

one character or one digit

'V'

leading sign for types I, P

'LL'

left-justified (at beginnig of template)

'RR'

right-justified (at beginnig of template)

':', ...

separator

 

all other characters

Date separators as defined in user's master record.
Can be used also the formatting options of the FORMAT statement (intensity and color).


Declaring Data.


Types Definition.

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ABAP/4 Data Types:

TYPES:

Introduces user-defined data types. Variants:

·         TYPES <type>[<length>].
Default C(1). <length> should only be used with the types C, N, P and X. Other types can only be created in the standard length. Additions:

o        TYPE <knowntype>.
LIKE <f>.
Defines the new type. <f> - a database field or an already defined internal field.

o        TYPE <knowntype> OCCURS <n>.
LIKE <f> OCCURS <n>.
Defines the new type of an internal table without a header line. This table consists of any number of table lines that have the same structure as that specified by TYPE.
The OCCURS parameter <n> specifies how many table lines of storage is required. This storage reservation process does not happen until the first line is inserted in the table. The value <n> of the OCCURS specification has no effect on type checking, i.e. data objects which have types with different OCCURS specifications are type-compatible.

o        TYPE LINE OF <itabtype>.
LIKE LINE OF <itab>.
Creates a type corresponding to the line type of the specified table type <itabtype> or of the specified table <itab>.

·         TYPES BEGIN OF <rectype>
...
END OF <rectype>.

Defines the field string <rectype>.

TYPE-POOLS:

TYPE-POOLS <name>.
Allows to use all the data types and constants defined in the type group <name>. Type groups store user-defined data types or constants in the ABAP/4 Dictionary for cross-program use.


Data Definition.

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TABLES:

TABLES <databasetable>.
Makes the database table, view or structure known to the program. Defines the identical field string - the table work area - in the program. The names and the sequence of the fields of the table work area correspond exactly to the names and the sequence of the fields when declaring the database table or view in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. The ABAP/4 data type and the length of the fields are derived from the data types in the ABAP/4 Dictionary as follows.

DATA:

the DATA statement has the same form as TYPES, plus optional additions:

·         ... VALUE {<value>|IS INITIAL}.
<value> is literal or constant.

·         ... WITH HEADER LINE.
May be used only for internal table objects. The internal table is created with a table work area. If you want to create an internal table with a header line, the line type cannot directly be an internal table. However, it can be a structure that has internal tables as components.

To create an internal table data object without referring either to an existing object or to an existing line structure, use the DATA statement as follows:

·         DATA BEGIN OF <itab> OCCURS <n>
...
END OF <itab>.

This statement always creates a table work area (HEADER LINE).

CONSTANTS:

the CONSTANTS statement has the same form as DATA, but addition ... VALUE <value> is obligatory.

STATICS:

the STATICS statement has the same form as DATA.
Retains the value of a variable beyond the runtime of a procedure (subroutine or function module).

Determining the Attributes of Data Objects:

DESCRIBE FIELD <f> [LENGTH <l>] [TYPE <type> [COMPONENTS <n>]] [OUTPUT-LENGTH <lo>] [DECIMALS <nd>] [EDIT MASK <mask>].

The attributes of the data object <f> specified by the parameters of the statement are written to the variables following the parameters:

·         <l> - length of the field;

·         <type> - type of the field:

<type>

Meaning

C, N, D, T, I, F, P, X

Elementary Data Type

h

Internal table

s

2-byte integer with leading sign

b

1-byte integer without leading sign

u

Field string without internal table

v

Field string containing at least one internal table

·         Note. If ... COMPONENTS <n> not present then ... TYPE <type> returns C rather than u or v with structures.

·         <n> - number of structure components or 0 if <f> is not a structure;

·         <lo> - length required when outputting <f> with WRITE. A max value is therefore defined by the maximum line length for lists. For internal tables and structures which contain internal tables, the value 0 is returned because these cannot be output with WRITE either.

·         <nd> - number of decimal places;

·         <mask> - if the field <f> has a conversion routine in the ABAP/4 Dictionary, this is placed in the field <mask> (a C(10) field) in the form "==conv". "conv" stands for the name of the conversion routine, e.g. "==ALPHA" in the conversion routine "ALPHA". The ABAP/4 conversion routines have names CONVERSION_EXIT_name_OUTPUT (and ..._INPUT). In this form, <mask> can then be used in the addition USING EDIT MASK mask of the WRITE statement.

DESCRIBE TABLE <itab> [LINES <nl>] [OCCURS <no>].

·         <nl> - number of filled lines;

·         <no> - value of OCCURS.

DESCRIBE DISTANCE BETWEEN <f1> AND <f2> INTO <n>.

Determines the distance between the fields <f1> and <f2> and places the result (in bytes) in <n>.


Data Processing.


Assignment Operations.

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Assignment Operator:

<fn> = ... <f3> = <f2> = <f1>.
Equivalent to MOVE. Executed from right to left.

MOVE TO:

MOVE <f1> TO <f2>.
Follows the Conversion Rules.
See also MOVE PERCENTAGE for character string.

MOVE-CORRESPONDING:

MOVE-CORRESPONDING <fstring1> TO <fstring2>.
This statement assigns the contents of components of field string fstring1 to those components of field string fstring2 which have the same names.

WRITE TO:

WRITE <f1> TO <f2> [<options>].
Does NOT follow the Conversion Rules. The target field is interpreted as a type C field.
Option - all Formatting Options except UNDER and NO-GAP.
Always checks the settings in the user's master record, e.g. whether the decimal point appears as a period (.) or a comma (,).

Specifying the Source field at Runtime with WRITE TO:

WRITE (<f1>) TO <f2>.
The system places the value of the data object assigned to <f1> in <f2>.
Example:

DATA: NAME(10) VALUE 'SOURCE',
SOURCE(10) VALUE 'Antony',
TARGET(10).
...
WRITE (NAME) TO TARGET.
WRITE: TARGET.
This produces the output:
Antony

CLEAR:

CLEAR <f>|<fstring> [WITH <g>|NULL].
Resets the contents to initial values (or to a first byte of <g> or to X'00').

FREE:

FREE <f>|<fstring>.
Like CLEAR, resets the contents to initial values. Also releases any resources connected with the data object.
This may be relevant with internal tables, structures with tabular components as well as table work areas.


Numerical Operations.

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COMPUTE:

[COMPUTE] <n> = <expression>.

Using Mathematical Functions:

[COMPUTE] <n> = <function>( <m> ).
The blanks between the parentheses and the argument <m> are obligatory.
Functions for all Numeric Data Types: ABS, SIGN, CEIL, FLOOR, TRUNC, FRAC.
Floating-Point functions: COS, SIN, TAN, ACOS, ASIN, ATAN, COSH, SINH, TANH, EXP, LOG, LOG10, SQRT.

Basic Arithmetic Operations:

Operation

Using expression

Using keyword

Addition

<p> = <n> + <m>.

ADD <n> TO <m>.

Subtraction

<p> = <n> - <m>.

SUBTRACT <n> FROM <m>.

Multiplication

<p> = <n> * <m>.

MULTIPLY <m> BY <n>.

Division

<p> = <n> / <m>.

DIVIDE <m> BY <n>.

Integer division

<p> = <n> DIV <m>.

-

Remainder of division

<p> = <n> MOD <m>.

-

Exponentiation

<p> = <n> ** <m>.

-

When using mathematical expressions, please note that the operators +, -, *, **, and /, as well as opening and closing parentheses, are ABAP/4 words and must therefore be preceded and followed by blanks.

ADD-CORRESPONDING <fstring1> TO <fstring2>,
SUBTRACT-CORRESPONDING <fstring1> FROM <fstring2>,
MULTIPLY-CORRESPONDING <fstring2> BY <fstring1>,
DIVIDE-CORRESPONDING <fstring2> BY <fstring1>:

See MOVE-CORRESPONDING.

Adding Sequences of Fields:

1.     ADD <n1> THEN <n2> UNTIL <nz> GIVING <m>.
~ m = n1 + n2 + ... + nz.

2.     ADD <n1> THEN <n2> UNTIL <nz> TO <m>.
~ m = m + n1 + n2 + ... + nz.

3.     ADD <n1> THEN <n2> UNTIL <nz> ... ACCORDING TO <sel> GIVING|TO <m>.
<sel> is generated by SELECT-OPTIONS or RANGE..

4.     ADD <n1> FROM <m1> TO <mz> GIVING <m>.
<n1> is the first in a sequence of consecutive fields.
<m1> and <mz> contain the numbers of the first and last fields in this sequence.

Operators Precedence:

The order of evaluation is:

1.     expressions in parentheses

2.     functions

3.     ** (exponentiation)

4.     *, / , MOD, DIV (multiplications, divisions)

5.     +, - (additions, subtractions)


Character Strings Operations.

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Note to the Character Strings Operations.
All the operations marked with '*' process the operands regardless of type as type C - no internal conversion is performed.

SHIFT * :

SHIFT <c> [BY <n> PLACES] [LEFT|RIGHT|CIRCULAR].

<n> can be a variable, must be >0 (no actions if <0), default is 1. LEFT is default.

SHIFT <c> UP TO <str> [LEFT|RIGHT|CIRCULAR].

<str> is a substring to search in <str> and can be a variable. LEFT is default.
If <str> is not found in <c>, SY-SUBRC is set to 4 and <c> is not shifted. Otherwise, SY-SUBRC is set to 0.

SHIFT <c> LEFT DELETING LEADING <str>.
SHIFT <c> RIGHT DELETING TRAILING <str>.

<str> can be a variable.

REPLACE * :

REPLACE <str1> WITH <str2> INTO <c> [LENGTH <len>].
Searches the field <c> for the first occurrence of the first <len> positions of the pattern <str1>. If no length is specified, it searches for the pattern <str1> in its full length. Then, the statement replaces the first occurrence of the pattern <str1> in field <c> with the string <str2>. If a length <len> was specified, only the relevant part of the pattern is replaced.
SY-SUBRC = 0: string replaced; SY-SUBRC = 4: string not replaced.. <str1>, <str2>, and <len> can be variables.

TRANSLATE * :

TRANSLATE <c> TO UPPER CASE.
TRANSLATE <c> TO LOWER CASE.

To convert also umlauts the profile parameter abap/locale_ctype must be set and character set must be found.
TRANSLATE <c> USING <str>.
<str> contains pairs of letters, where the 1st letter of each pair is replaced by the 2nd letter. Can be a variable.
TRANSLATE <c> FROM CODE PAGE <g1> TO CODE PAGE <g2>.
TRANSLATE <c> FROM CODE PAGE <g>.
TRANSLATE <c> TO CODE PAGE <g>.

Conversion tables <g1> and <g2> must exist, otherwise Runtime error. Use transaction SPAD to maintain conversion tables TCP00 - TCP02. Some conversion combinations maintained at Runtime for performance reason (e.g. '1110' - HP, '0100' - EBCDIC (IBM 274)).
I, P, F, X fields remain unchanged.
TRANSLATE <c> FROM NUMBER FORMAT <N1> TO NUMBER FORMAT <N2>.
TRANSLATE <c> FROM NUMBER FORMAT <N>.
TRANSLATE <c> TO NUMBER FORMAT <N>.

Number format <N> can be '0000' (HP, SINIX,IBM) or '0101' (DEC alpha OSF).
Function module SYSTEM_FORMAT displays system code page and number format.

CONVERT:

CONVERT TEXT <c> INTO SORTABLE CODE <sc>.
Source <c> must be C or W type. Target <sc> should be of type X and at least 16 times (for C) or 4 times (for W) as long as source. The method of conversion depends on the text environment of the running ABAP/4 program. The text environment is defined in the user's master record or, as an exception, can be set via SET LOCALE LANGUAGE.
The purpose of this statement is to create an accompanying field <sc> for a character field <c>, which can serve as an alphabetical binary sort key for <c>, which is NOT dependent of platform-specific internal coding of the individual letters.

OVERLAY * :

OVERLAY <c1> WITH <c2> [ONLY <str>].
Overlays all positions in <c1> containing letters which occur in <str> with the contents of <c2>. If omit ONLY <str>, only SPACEs are overwritten.
SY-SUBRC = 0 : at least one character was replaced; SY-SUBRC = 4 : other cases.

SEARCH * :

SEARCH <c> FOR <str> [<options>].
Searches <c> for the character string in <str>. If successful, SY-SUBRC = 0 and SY-FDPOS = offset. Otherwise SY-SUBRC = 4.
Pattern:

·         'str' : Character string (trailing blanks are ignored);

·         '.str .' : Any character string between periods;

·         '*str' : Word ending with "str";

·         'str*' : Word beginning with "str".

Options:

·         ABBREVIATED : Searches for a word containing the character string specified in <str>, where the characters might be separated by other characters. The first letter of the word and the string <str> must be the same;

·         STARTING AT <n1> : Note. SY-FDPOS = offset starting at <n1> as well;

·         ENDING AT <n2>

·         AND MARK : Marks converting to uppercase.

CONDENSE * :

CONDENSE <c> [NO-GAPS].
Removes leading blanks. Replaces other sequences of blanks with one blank or removes all blanks if NO-GAPS.

STRLEN * :

[COMPUTE] <n> = STRLEN( <c> ).

CONCATENATE * :

CONCATENATE <c1> ... <cn> INTO <c> [SEPARATED BY <s>].
Trailing blanks ignored. SY-SUBRC = 0 : OK; SY-SUBRC = 4 : result has to be truncated.

SPLIT * :

SPLIT <c> AT <delimiter> INTO <c1> ... <cn>.
To place all fragments in different target fields, you must specify enough target fields. Otherwise, the last target field is filled with the rest of the field <c> and still contains delimiters.
SY-SUBRC = 0 : All target fields are long enough and no fragment has to be truncated. Otherwise SY-SUBRC = 4.
SPLIT <c> AT <delimiter> INTO TABLE <itab>.
For each part of the character string, the system adds a new table line.

MOVE PERCENTAGE:

MOVE <c1> TO <c2> PERCENTAGE <n> [RIGHT].
<n> = 0...100. PERCENTAGE ignored when either <c1> or <c2> are not C type.


Logical Operations.

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Comparisons:

... <f1> <operator> <f2> ...

All Field Types:

Operators:

EQ
=

NE
<>
><

LT
<

LE
<=

GT
>

GE
>=

The operands can be database fields, internal fields, literals, or constants; structured data types (compared component by component and nested structures are broken down into elementary fields); internal tables. Fields of different data types can be compared (if they are convertible) after an automatic Type Conversions according to the following hierarchical rules:

One of the operands

Other operand

Conversion

F

any

to F

P

any

to P

D or T

any

to D or T.
Note. Comparison between D and T not supported and causes program termination.

C

X

to C

C

N

both to P

Character Strings and Numeric Strings:

Only for types C and N.

Op.

Meaning

Case-
sensitive

Trailing
Blanks

True if

SY-FDPOS
if true

SY-FDPOS
if false

CO

Contains Only

yes

included

<f1> contains only characters from <f2>

length of <f1>

offset of the first character of <f1> that does not occur in <f2>

CN

contains Not Only

yes

included

<f1> contains characters other than those in <f2>

offset of the first character of <f1> that does not occur in <f2>

length of <f1>

CA

Contains Any

yes

?

<f1> contains at least one character from <f2>

offset of the first character of <f1> that occurs in <f2>

length of <f1>

NA

contains Not Any

yes

?

<f1> contains no one character from <f2>

length of <f1>

offset of the first character of <f1> that occurs in <f2>

CS

Contains String

no

ignored

<f1> contains <f2>

offset of <f2> in <f1>

length of <f1>

NS

contains No String

no

ignored

<f1> does not contain <f2>

length of <f1>

offset of <f2> in <f1>

CP

Contains Pattern

no

ignored

<f1> contains pattern <f2>:

  • * - any character string;
  • + - any single character;
  • #c - the particular character (in upper or lower case);
  • #* - the "*" symbol;
  • #+ - the "+" symbol;
  • ## - the "#" symbol itself;
  • #___ - the trailing blanks.

offset of <f2> in <f1>

length of <f1>

NP

contains No Pattern

no

ignored

<f1> does not contain pattern <f2>

length of <f1>

offset of <f2> in <f1>

Bit Structures:

Compares first byte of the <f1> with <f2>, which should have length 1 byte (recommended use as <f2> type X length 1).

Operator

Meaning

True if

O

bits are one

bits that are 1 in <f2>, are 1 in <f1> as well

Z

bits are zero

bits that are 1 in <f2>, are 0 in <f1>

M

bits are mixed

from bits that are 1 in <f2>, at least one is 1 an one is 0 in <f1>

Checking Whether a Field Belongs to a Range:

... <f1> BETWEEN <f2> AND <f3> ...
it is short form of
... <f1> GE <f2> AND <f1> LE <f3> ...

Checking for the Initial Value:

... <f> IS INITIAL ...
true if <f> contains the initial value for its type. In general, any field, elementary or structured (field strings and internal tables), contains its initial value after a CLEAR <f> statement is executed.

Checking Selection Criteria:

... <f> IN <sel> ...
If the selection criteria <sel> is attached to <f> with the SELECT-OPTIONS statement the short form can be used:
... <sel> ...

Combine Operators and Operators Precedence:

Priority: NOT AND OR. Equal priority operations are processed from left to right. If one of the component expressions is recognized as true or false, the remaining part is not performing if total expression can be known. Therefore you can improve performance by organizing logical expressions (for example, by placing comparisons which are often false at the beginning of an AND chain and expensive comparisons, such as searches for character strings, at the end).


Lists Processing.


Write Operation.

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WRITE (see transaction LIBS for SAP guidelines using colors, symbols, icons etc. in lists):

WRITE <f> [<formatting options>].
<f> can be:

·         any data object (variable, literal, constant);

·         field symbol or formal parameter;

·         text symbol like text-<nnn> or 'default text'(<nnn>), where <nnn> is text symbol's Id.

Type-specific output (len=field length):

Type

Standard output length

Justified

C

len

left

D

8

left

F

22

right

I

11

right

N

len

left

P

2*len[+1]

right

T

6

left

X

2*len

left

Positioning output on the screen:

WRITE AT [/][<pos>][(<len>)] <f>.
<f> can be:

·         / - new line;

·         <pos>, <len> - numbers or variables up to 3 digits;

·         AT can be omitted if <pos>, <len> are not variables.

If <len> is too short, fewer characters are displayed. Numeric fields are truncated on the left and prefixed with an asterisk (*). All other fields are truncated on the right, but no indication is given that the field is shorter.

Outputting symbols and icons on the screen:

WRITE <symbol-name> AS SYMBOL.
WRITE <icon-name> AS ICON.

<symbol-name> and <icon-name> are system-defined constants which are specified in the include programs <SYMBOL> and <ICON> (<LIST> replaces both the above). The angle brackets are part of the name.
To browse all available icons and symbols use pattern for the WRITE statement in the ABAP/4 Editor. All icons can be viewed using the ICON transaction as well.

Lines and blank lines the screen:

ULINE [AT [/][<pos>][(<len>)]] [NO-GAP].
this is equivalent to WRITE [AT [/][<pos>][(<len>)]] SY_ULINE [NO-GAP].
WRITE [AT [/][<pos>]] SY-VLINE.

or WRITE [AT [/][<pos>]] '|'.
SKIP [<n>].
SKIP TO LINE [<n>].
Note. WRITE / ' '. statement does not output blank line by default. To change default setting use following statement:
SET BLANK LINES ON|OFF.

Outputting field content as checkbox:

WRITE <f> AS CHECKBOX.
If the first character of <f> is an "X", the checkbox is displayed filled. If the first character is SPACE, the checkbox is displayed blank. The checkboxes that are created by this statement are input enabled by default.

Outputting lines on the screen:

WRITE <f> AS LINE.
On list output, automatically links certain characters together to form continuous lines or boxes, if there is no space between them:

·         vertical lines, output with the system field SY-VLINE or using a field with the contents "|" (vertical line);

·         horizontal lines, output with the system field SY-ULINE or using a field with at least 2 consecutive minus signs "--".

Exactly how each line segment is output (e.g. whether as straight line, corner, T-piece or cross) depends on the adjoining characters.
The include <LINE> (or the more comprehensive include <LIST>) contains the relevant identifiers for lines as constants, e.g. LINE_TOP_LEFT_CORNER, LINE_BOTTOM_MIDDLE_CORNER.

FORMAT:

FORMAT <option1> [ON|OFF] <option2> [ON|OFF] ... .
FORMAT <option1>=<var1> <option2>=<var2> ... .
Effective from next output (WRITE or new line) operation until next event or turning OFF. ON = default. <vari> should be of type I. If the <vari>=0, the variable has the same effect as the OFF option. If WRITE statement follows the FORMAT statement, the settings of the WRITE statement overwrite the corresponding settings of the FORMAT statement for the current output.

·         FORMAT COLOR <n> [ON] INTENSIFIED [ON|OFF] INVERSE [ON|OFF].
Does not work for lines. If INVERSE is used, the INTENSIFIED has no effect. Has no effect on input fields.

vari

Symbol name

Color

OFF

COL_BACKGROUND

Background (GUI-specific)

1

COL_HEADING

Headers (grayish blue)

2

COL_NORMAL

List body (bright gray)

3

COL_TOTAL

Totals (yellow)

4

COL_KEY

Key columns (bluish green)

5

COL_POSITIVE

Positive threshold value (green)

6

COL_NEGATIVE

Negative threshold value (red)

7

COL_GROUP

Control levels (violet)

·         ABAP/4 colors
Call the SHOWCOLO report in any system for demonstration of colors in lists.

·         SUMMARY. this is equivalent to FORMAT INTENSIFIED ON.
DETAIL. this is equivalent to FORMAT INTENSIFIED OFF.

·         FORMAT HOTSPOT [ON|OFF].
Affects the display format of the mouse pointer and the effect of the mouse single click: If you drag the mouse pointer over list areas which are output with the format ...HOTSPOT (lines or fields), the mouse pointer switches from its standard display format (usually an arrow) to the format of a hand with an outstretched index finger. If you then click once, the effect is like double-clicking or pressing the function key F2 (AT LINE-SELECTION). Has no effect on input fields.

·         FORMAT INPUT [ON|OFF].
Determines whether the user can enter data. See READ LINE.

·         FORMAT RESET.
The same as FORMAT COLOR OFF INTENSIFIED OFF INVERSE OFF HOTSPOT OFF INPUT OFF.


Define Structure of List.

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List Width:

REPORT <report> LINE-SIZE <n>.
n=0 : standard list. List cannot be wider than 255 (132 for most printers). SY-LINSZ contains the current line size.
To adapt the line size to the current window width, set <n> to SY-SCOLS. SY-SCOLS contains the number of characters of a line of the current window.

Page Length:

REPORT <report> LINE-COUNT <length>[(<n>)].
n - number of reserved for footer lines. length=0 : standard list. SY-LINCT contains the current page length or 0 if standard page.
To adapt the page length to the current window length, set <length> to SY-SROWS. SY-SROWS contains the number of lines of the current window.

Individual Page Header:

REPORT <report> [NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING].
....
TOP-OF-PAGE [DURING LINE-SELECTION].
   WRITE... .

List processing event that is executed before the first data is output on a new page. Without the addition ... DURING LINE-SELECTION, processed only when generating basic lists, not when creating secondary lists. Only executed before outputting the first line on a new page - not triggered by a NEW-PAGE statement.
During the event TOP-OF-PAGE, you can also fill the system fields SY-TVAR0...SY-TVAR9 with values that should replace eventual placeholders &0...&9 in the standard page header.

Individual Page Footer:

REPORT <report> LINE-COUNT <length>(<n>).
....
END-OF-PAGE.
   WRITE... .

END-OF-PAGE processed only if n>0. If you explicitly specify a new page with NEW-PAGE, END-OF-PAGE is ignored.

Page Break:

NEW-PAGE [PRINT ON ...].

·         ends the current page and increased SY-PAGNO by 1;

·         does not trigger the END-OF-PAGE event.

NEW-PAGE [NO-TITLE|WITH-TITLE] [NO-HEADING|WITH-HEADING].

·         used to suppress or display the standard header and/or columns headers on all pages to come. default both: WITH for basic and NO for secondary lists;

·         does not affect the display of a page header defined at the event TOP-OF-PAGE.

NEW-PAGE LINE-COUNT <length>.

length=0 : standard list. Can be variable.

NEW-PAGE LINE-SIZE <n>.

n=0 : standard list. Can be variable. Within a list level, that is, if the next page is not the beginning of a new list level, the system ignores the LINE-SIZE option.

RESERVE <n> LINES.

Triggers a page break if less than <n> free lines are left on the current list page between the last output and the page footer. <n> can be a variable. Before starting a new page, the system processes the END-OF-PAGE event. RESERVE only takes effect if output is written to the subsequent page. No blank pages are created.

Scrolling:

common notes.

·         SCROLL works for completed lists only. If you use SCROLL before the first output statement of a list, it does not affect this list. If you use SCROLL after the first output statement of a list, it affects the entire list, that is, all subsequent output statements as well;

·         While creating a secondary list, a SCROLL statement without INDEX option always refers to the previously displayed list on which the interactive event occurred (index SY-LISTI);

·         Only when creating the basic list does the SCROLL statement refer to the currently created list;

·         You can use the INDEX option to explicitly scroll on existing list levels. To do this, the lists need not be displayed. When the user displays the list again, it is scrolled to the specified position. If the specified list level does not exist, the system sets SY-SUBRC to 8;

·         If, during an interactive event, you want to scroll through the list you are currently creating, use SY-LSIND as the index in the SCROLL statement. Note that a manipulation of SY-LSIND takes effect only at the end of the event on the created list, independent of where you place the statement in the processing block. If you want to set the list level explicitly, you must manipulate SY-LSIND in the last statement of the processing block to make sure that a SCROLL statement within the processing block accesses the correct list;

·         Another way of scrolling interactive lists from within the program is to use the SET USER-COMMAND statement in connection with the corresponding system-defined function codes;

·         SY-SUBRC = 0 : Ok; = 4 : scrolling was not possible (exit boundaries); = 8 : list level does not exist.

SCROLL LIST FORWARD|BACKWARD [INDEX <index>].

vertical scrolling window by window

SCROLL LIST TO {FIRST PAGE|LAST PAGE|PAGE <n>} [INDEX <index>] [LINE <line>].
SCROLL LIST FORWARD|BACKWARD <n> PAGES [INDEX <index>].

vertical scrolling by pages

SCROLL LIST LEFT|RIGHT [INDEX <index>].

horizontal scrolling to margins

SCROLL LIST TO COLUMN <n> [INDEX <index>].
SCROLL LIST LEFT|RIGHT BY <n> PLACES [INDEX <index>].

horizontal scrolling by columns

SET LEFT SCROLL-BOUNDARY [COLUMN <n>].

Only the part to the right from {current column|column <n>} will be scrolled horizontally. Applies to the entire current page, and only to it. To set the same scrollable area for all pages of a list, use, for example, at the TOP-OF-PAGE event.

NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.

Excludes the line following the statement from horizontal scrolling (for example, title line).

NEW-LINE SCROLLING.

This statement makes sense only if after NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING no line was output.

Displaying Lists in Dialog Windows.

WINDOW STARTING AT <left> <upper> [ENDING AT <right> <lower>].
Causes the current list (index SY-LSIND) to be displayed in a dialog window. If <upper> = 0, the list appears on a fullscreen. By default, the system uses the values of the lower right corner of the window on which the event occurred. If the width of the dialog window is smaller than the width of the preceding list, the system creates a horizontal scroll bar on the dialog window. To prevent that, you must adapt the width of the secondary list to the width of the dialog window by using the following statement: NEW-PAGE LINE-SIZE <width>.
Dialog window has not a menu bar or a standard toolbar. Standard application toolbar at the lower margin has functions PRI, %SC, %SC+, and RW.

Positioning the output

For the current output position, refer to the system fields

·         SY-COLNO - the current column;

·         SY-LINNO - the current line.

POSITION <column>.

Sets horizontal output position. Se also WRITE AT and SKIP TO LINE for vertical output position.

BACK.

Subsequent output appears beneath the page header or to the first line of a block of lines defined with the RESERVE, if used. If you specify BACK at the TOP-OF-PAGE event, the system does not set the output position to beneath the entire page header, but only to beneath the standard page header. Any output written now overwrites the self-defined page header specified at TOP-OF-PAGE.

SET TITLEBAR:

SET TITLEBAR <titlebar> [WITH <f0> <f1> ... <f9>].
Sets a screen title. A set title remains valid within a transaction until you call SET TITLEBAR again. SY-TITLE (can be up to 70 characters long) contains the current screen title. Allows you to build up to 9 parameters into the header, using the variables &1 to &9.

Retrieving List Attributes:

You should use this key word only in exceptional cases (e.g. when editing an 'anonymous' list in a program other than that which generated the list). In all other cases, you should save the relevant values when you generate the list. Take care when attempting to retrieve the list attributes being set up (...INDEX SY-LSIND), since some attributes (number of pages, number of lines, ...) may not have been updated yet.

DESCRIBE LIST NUMBER OF LINES|PAGES <n> [INDEX <index>].

Returns the number of lines|pages in the list. SY-SUBRC=0 : Ok, <>0 : list does not exists.

DESCRIBE LIST LINE <nl> PAGE <n> [INDEX <index>].

Returns the number of the page for the line <nl> in the list. SY-SUBRC=0 : Ok, 4 : line does not exists, 8 : list does not exists.

DESCRIBE LIST PAGE <np> <options> [INDEX <index>].

Returns the attributes of the page <np> in the list. SY-SUBRC=0 : Ok, 4 : page does not exists, 8 : list does not exists. <options>:

·         LINE-SIZE <n> - page width;

·         LINE-COUNT <n> - page length;

·         LINES <n> - number of displayed lines;

·         FIRST-LINE <n> - absolute number of the first line;

·         TOP-LINES <n> - number of lines output by page header processing (i.e. standard title + column headers + TOP-OF-PAGE);

·         TITLE-LINES <n> - number of lines output as standard title lines by page header processing (see NEW-PAGE).
Note. The value of TITLE-LINES is contained in TOP-LINES;

·         HEAD-LINES <n> - number of lines output as column headers by page header processing (see NEW-PAGE).
Note. The value of HEAD-LINES is contained in TOP-LINES;

·         END-LINES <n> - number of lines output by page footer processing (see END-OF-PAGE);


Interactive Lists.

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HIDE:

HIDE <f>.
Stores the contents of variable <f> in relation to the current output line (system field SY-LINNO) internally in the so-called HIDE area. <f> must not necessarily appear on the current line.

READ LINE:

The system internally stores all lists created in succession by one report program. Therefore, you can access any list from within the program that was created during the current dialog session and has not been deleted by returning to a previous list level.
READ LINE <n> [INDEX <index>]
     [FIELD VALUE <f1> [INTO <g1>] ... <fn> [INTO <gn>]]
     [OF CURRENT PAGE|OF PAGE <n>].
READ CURRENT LINE
     [FIELD VALUE <f1> [INTO <g1>] ... <fn> [INTO <gn>]]

Stores the contents of line from the list on which the event was triggered (list index SY-LISTI, line number SY-LILLI) in the SY-LISEL system field and fills all HIDE information stored for this line back into the corresponding fields.
SY-SUBRC = 0 : Ok; = 4 : line does not exist.
FIELD VALUE uses Conversion Rules (see Source Type C). Fields that do not appear in a line, do not affect the target field. If a field appears several times in a line, the system uses only the first one.

MODIFY LINE:

MODIFY {LINE <n> | LINE <n> OF CURRENT PAGE | LINE <n> OF PAGE <page> | CURRENT LINE}
     [INDEX <index>]
- index=SY-LSIND, applied only for LINE <n>
     [LINE FORMAT <fmt1> ... <fmtn>]
- applied for whole line
     [FIELD FORMAT <f1> <fmt11> ... <fmt1m> [... <fn> <fmtn1> ... <fmtnm>]]
     [LINE VALUE FROM <wa>]
     [FIELD VALUE <f1> [FROM <g1>] [... <fn> [FROM <gn>]].
- <f1> means <f1> FROM <f1>
Changes the line of the list taking values from SY-LISEL (or from the <wa> or <gn>). Usually after List Events: AT LINE-SELECTION, AT PFxx, AT USER-COMMAND, where the SY-LISEL is filled. Fills HIDE information.
SY-SUBRC = 0 : Ok; <> 0 : line was not changed.

GET CURSOR:

GET CURSOR FIELD <f> [OFFSET <o>] [LINE <n>] [VALUE <val>] [LENGTH <l>].
Transfers the name of the field on which the cursor is positioned during a user action into the variable <f>. If the cursor is on a field, the SY-SUBRC is 0, otherwise 4. The system transports the names of global variables, constants, field symbols, or reference parameters of subroutines. For literals, local fields, and VALUE parameters of subroutines, the system sets SY-SUBRC to 0, but transfers SPACE as the name.
GET CURSOR LINE <n> [OFFSET <o>] [VALUE <val>] [LENGTH <l>].
Transfers the number of the line on which the cursor is positioned during a user action into the variable <n>. If the cursor is on a list line, the SY-SUBRC is 0, otherwise 4.

·         <o> contains the position of the cursor within the field. If the cursor is on the first column, <o> = 0;

·         <n> contains the number of the list line on which the cursor is positioned (SY-LILLI);

·         <val> contains the character string output representation of the field|line on which the cursor is positioned. The representation includes formatting characters;

·         <l> contains the output length of the field on which the cursor is positioned.

SET CURSOR:

SET CURSOR FIELD <f> [OFFSET <o>] [LINE <n>].
Set cursor at begin of field <f> (should be in uppercase), or at column <o> (begin is ). In step loop or in list processing (if the field is displayed on several lines) <n> is needed. In list processing <n> means SY-LILLI.
SET CURSOR LINE <n> [OFFSET <o>].
In list processing <n> means SY-LILLI.
SET CURSOR <column> <line>.
<column> and <line> are absolute position on the current screen.

Event Control for Interactive Lists:

·         AT LINE-SELECTION occurs after the user double-clicks on a line, clicks once on a hotspot, or chooses Edit-Choose;

·         AT PF<nn> occurs after the user presses the corresponding function key. Predefined system functions have higher priority than self-defined events. The system does not trigger an event AT PF<nn> for keys whose function code is predefined:

Help

F1

Choose

F2

Back

F3

Possible Entries

F4

Cancel

F12

First Page

F21

Previous Page

F22

Next Page

F23

Last Page

F24

·         Recommended use AT PF for testing purposes only. In final version use AT USER-COMMAND together with self-defined interfaces.

·         AT USER-COMMAND occurs after the user chooses a self-defined action. SY-UCOMM contains chosen function code.

·         SET USER-COMMAND <command> triggers event from within the program. Takes effect after the current list is completed. Before the system displays the list, it triggers the event that corresponds to the function code stored in <command>, independent of the applied user interface.

<command>

Event

self-defined function code

AT USER-COMAND

'PICK'

AT LINE-SELECTION

'PF<nn>'

AT PF<nn>

Predefined Function Code

not event, but direct action

SET PF-STATUS:

SET PF-STATUS <status> [EXCLUDING <function>|<itab>] [IMMEDIATELY].
Sets user-defined <status> for all subsequent list levels until you set another status. SY-PFKEY - status of the current list. <status> is SPACE to set system status. <function>, type C(4), (or list of functions in the <itab>) - function code(s) to be deactivated in the <status>. IMMEDIATELY changes the status of the currently displayed list (SY-LISTI) within the processing block of the interactive event. Without this option, the system changes the status of the current secondary list (SY-LSIND) that is displayed only at the end of the processing block.

Messages in Lists:

Messages are stored and maintained in the T100 "Messages" table by

1.     Language key - type C(1);

2.     Application area (or message Id) - type C(2);

3.     Message number - type C(3).

REPORT <report> MESSAGE-ID <id>.

Specifies <id> for use in <report> statically.

MESSAGE <type><number>[(<id>)] [WITH <f1>...<f4>] [RAISING <exception>].
MESSAGE ID <fid> TYPE <ftype> NUMBER <fnumber> [WITH <f1>...<f4>] [RAISING <exception>].

Specifies message dynamically (2nd statement - at runtime: <fid>, <ftype>, <fnumber> - variables). <f1>...<f4> replace placeholders in the message text: the '&' - one after the other; the '&i' - according to the number. Use '&&' to display the '&' symbol in the message. Up to 4 placeholders are allowed, each can place up to 50 characters.
RAISING is allowed only for a function module.
When executing the statement, the following system variables are set: SY-MSGID - message ID; SY-MSGTY - message type; SY-MSGNO - message number.

Message Type:

Type

Display

Action

I - Info

Dialog window

'Press Enter to continue'.

W - Warning

Status window

'Correction possible'.
= E for Lists Processing

E - Error

Status window

'Correction required'.
= A for Processing of basic list,
returns to the previous list level for a secondary list.

A - Abend

Dialog window

'Transaction terminated'.

X - eXit

Status window

= A, but transaction terminated with short dump
MESSAGE_TYPE_X

S - Success

Status window

'Message on next screen'.


Predefined System Codes.

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Predefined and assigned to the different elements of the status.

Code

Menu

Status Element -
Standard Toolbar

Function Key

Description

%PC

List

 

Shift-F8

Write list to file

PRI

List

Ctrl-P

Print displayed list

%EX

List

Shift-F3

Exit processing

PICK

Edit

F2

Event AT LINE-SELECTION

RW

Edit

F12, Esc

Cancel processing

%SC

Edit

Ctrl-F

Search pattern

%SC+

Edit

Ctrl-G

Continue search

BACK

Goto

F3

Back one level

P--

 

F21

Scroll to first window page

P-

 

F22

Scroll to previous window page

P+

 

F23

Scroll to next window page

P++

 

F24

Scroll to last window page

 

 

 

F10

Places the cursor into the menu bar to select a menu function

Predefined, but not set as status functions.
Can be assigned to any empty status element.

Code

Description

PF<nn>

Event AT PF<nn>

PP<n>

Scroll to top of list page <n>

PP-[<n>]

Scroll backward 1 or <n> pages

PP+[<n>]

Scroll forward 1 or <n> pages

PS<n>

Scroll to column <n>

PS--

Scroll to first column of the list

PS-[<n>]

Scroll left by 1 or <n> columns

PS+[<n>]

Scroll right by 1 or <n> columns

PS++

Scroll to last column of the list

PZ<n>

Scroll to line <n>

PL-[<n>]

Scroll backward to first line of the page or by <n> lines

PL+[<n>]

Scroll forward to last line of the page or by <n> lines

/....

For other system commands

Tips and tricks:

·         Any other (own or predefined) function code cannot be assigned to F10;

·         Replace function code PICK with your own function code to prevent the AT LINE-SELECTION event from being triggered in the report. You can then program all reactions to user actions in a single processing block (AT USER-COMMAND).

·         Delete predefined function codes whose functionality you do not want to support. For example, you may not want the user to print a list directly or to save a list in a file on the presentation server.

·         Modify the standard key settings. For example, you can assign your own function code to F3 to navigate within the lists according to your requirements, instead of returning one list level (Back). This may be important if you keep several lists on the same logical level and therefore do not want to delete the displayed list as would the standard F3 setting. Or you may want to display a warning before leaving a list level (see Messages in Lists).


Internal Tables Processing.


Identifying Table Lines.

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Internal Table Index:

The sequential number of a table line. Created and managed automatically by the system. Can be used with the DELETE, INSERT, MODIFY, LOOP, and READ TABLE statements, specified either as literal or as variable. After processing a particular line of an internal table, the SY-TABIX generally contains the index of that line.

Internal Table Key:

·         Standard - by definition, the key fields of an internal table are those fields which are not numeric (type F, I, and P) and are not internal tables. These key fields form the standard key of an internal table. To obtain the standard key of an internal tables with nested structures (table lines which contain field strings as components), the system breaks down the sub-structures to the level of elementary fields;

·         Self-Defined - can be specified when reading lines from an internal table using the READ TABLE.


Filling Table.

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Appending Lines:

APPEND [{<wa>|INITIAL LINE} TO] <itab>.

Appends a new line to table. For tables with a header line the source area can be omitted. After statement, the SY-TABIX contains the index of the appended line.

APPEND LINES OF <itab1> [FROM <idx1>] [TO <idx2>] TO <itab2>.

Appends lines from one table to another table. Default appends entire table. After statement, the SY-TABIX contains the index of the last appended line. About 3 to 4 times faster than appending lines line by line in a loop.

APPEND [<wa> TO] <itab> SORTED BY <f>.

Inserts the new line so that the internal table <itab> is sorted in descending order by the field <f>. If you use the SORTED BY option, the table can contain only the number of lines specified in the OCCURS parameter. If you add more lines than specified, the last line is discarded. This is useful for creating ranked lists of limited length (e.g. "Top Ten"). For ranked lists containing more than 100 entries, use instead the SORT for performance reasons.

Inserting Lines:

INSERT [{<wa>|INITIAL LINE} INTO] <itab> [INDEX <idx>].

Inserts a new line into table. For tables with a header line the source area can be omitted. With INDEX option, the new line is inserted before the line which has the index <idx>. After the insertion, the new entry has the index <idx> and the index of the following lines is incremented by 1.
If the table consists of <idx> - 1 entries, the system appends the new entry after the last existing table line. If the table has less than <idx> - 1 entries, the system cannot insert the entry: SY-SUBRC = 4. If success, SY-SUBRC = 0.
Use INSERT without the INDEX option is allowed only within a LOOP - ENDLOOP loop by inserting the new entry before the current line (i.e. the line which has the index returned by SY-TABIX).

INSERT LINES OF <itab1> [FROM <idx1>] [TO <idx2>] INTO <itab2> [INDEX <idx>].

Inserts lines from one table into another table. Default inserts entire table. Can be up to 20 times faster than inserting lines line by line in a loop.

Collecting Lines:

COLLECT [<wa> INTO] <itab>.

If a table entry with the same standard key does not exists (all non-numeric fields), the COLLECT has the same effect as the APPEND. If exists, the COLLECT adds the contents of the numeric fields in the work area to the contents of the numeric fields in the existing entry. SY-TABIX contains the index of the processed line.


Reading Table.

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Reading Single Lines:

READ TABLE <itab> [INTO <wa>] INDEX <idx>.

Reads the single line with index <idx> into <wa> (or into header line, if omitted). This is the fastest method.

·         <idx> <= 0 : runtime error;

·         <idx> > table size : SY-SUBRC = 4;

·         <idx> found : SY-SUBRC = 0, SY-TABIX = <idx>.

READ TABLE <itab> [INTO <wa>] [BINARY SEARCH].

Reads the first line with a particular standard key, which should be placed in the table work area (works only for internal tables with header line).

·         entry found : SY-SUBRC = 0, SY-TABIX = <idx>;

·         entry not found : SY-SUBRC <> 0;.

READ TABLE <itab> [INTO <wa>] WITH KEY <key> [BINARY SEARCH].

Reads the first line with <key>.

·         entry found : SY-SUBRC = 0, SY-TABIX = <idx>;

·         entry not found : SY-SUBRC <> 0;.

Key definition for internal tables:

....WITH KEY <k1> = <f1> ... <kn> = <fn> ...

The self-defined key consists of the table components <k1>...<kn>. If the data type of <fi> is not compatible to the data type of <ki>, then <fi> is converted to the type of <ki>. You can specify an offset and length for any component you use in the key. You can set key fields at runtime by replacing <ki> with (<ni>). The key field is the contents of the field <ni>. If <ni> is blank at runtime, the system ignores this key field. If <ni> contains an invalid component name, a runtime error occurs.

....WITH KEY = <value> ...

Defines entire line as key (will be converted if necessary).

....WITH KEY <value> ...

The system compares the (left-justified) beginning of a line with <value>. <value> cannot contain an internal table or a structure containing an internal table. In contrast to the above two options, the comparison is processed using the data type of <value>.

Additions:

·         BINARY SEARCH - performs a binary search instead of the standard sequential search (much faster). Table must be sorted.

o        SY-SUBRC = 0 : entry found, SY-TABIX = index of the found entry;

o        SY-SUBRC = 4 : entry not found, SY-TABIX = index of the next largest entry, output area remains unchanged;

o        SY-SUBRC = 8 : entry not found, the key is greater than last table entry, SY-TABIX = (number of all entries + 1), output area remains unchanged.

·         TRANSPORTING {<f1> ... <fn>|NO FIELDS} - only transports selected fields to the target area.

·         COMPARING {<f1> ... <fn>|ALL FIELDS} - reads single line with key or index into the target area. After reading the line, the components specified in fields list are compared to the corresponding components of the target area:

o        SY-SUBRC = 0 : line is read and the contents of the compared fields are the same;

o        SY-SUBRC = 2 : line is read, but the contents of the compared fields are not the same;

o        SY-SUBRC = 4 : no line was read.

LOOP Processing:

LOOP AT <itab> [INTO <wa>] [FROM <n1>] [TO <n2>] [WHERE <condition>].
  ...
ENDLOOP.

<itab> is read line by line into <wa> or into the table work area. For each line read, processed the statement block between LOOP and ENDLOOP. Within the statement block, SY-TABIX contains the index of the current line. The loop ends as soon as all lines of the table have been processed. After the ENDLOOP statement:

·         SY-SUBRC = 0 : at least one line was read;

·         SY-SUBRC = 4 : otherwise it is set to 4.

Restriction the number of lines to be processed:

·         FROM <n1> - the index of the first line to be read.

·         TO <n2> - the index of the last line to be read.

·         WHERE <condition> - the first operand of the logical expression must be a component of <itab>. Cannot be used together with the control keyword AT inside the loop.

Note. The FROM and TO options restrict the number of lines which the system has to read. The WHERE option only prevents unnecessary filling of the work area. With the WHERE option, the system must read all lines. To improve performance, you should use the FROM and TO options as much as possible. It can be also beneficial to leave the loop with the EXIT statement instead of using the WHERE option.

Calculating Totals:

SUM.
Can be used only in LOOP - ENDLOOP block. A component of an internal table line may not be another table. In an AT - ENDAT block, calculates totals for the numeric fields (I, F, P) of all lines in the current line group and writes them to the corresponding fields in the work area. Outside an AT - ENDAT block - do it for lines of the internal table in each loop pass. Therefore, SUM should be used only in AT - ENDAT blocks.

Using Control Levels for Groups of Lines (AT ... ENDAT Events):

AT <line>.
    ...
ENDAT.

The <line> condition:

<line>

Meaning

FIRST

First line of the internal table

LAST

Last line of the internal table

NEW <f>

Beginning of a group of lines with the same contents in the field <f> and in the fields left of <f>

END OF <f>

End of a group of lines with the same contents in the field <f> and in the fields left of <f>

<f> can be:

·         table field name;

·         table field name with Offset/Length specification;

·         field symbol. If it does not point to a valid component, a runtime error occurs;

·         (<name>) instead of <f> (See also). The <name> contains the name of the field <f>. If <name> is empty at runtime, the system ignores the control break criterion. If it contains an invalid component name, a runtime error occurs.

Cannot be used together with the WHERE restriction of a LOOP.
Immediately after AT:

·         All default key fields [on the right of <f>] are filled with '*';

·         All other fields [on the right of <f>] are cleared;

·         If SUM used then appropriate control totals are inserted in numeric fields;

·         After AT the old contents of LOOP output area are restored.


Modifying Table.

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MODIFY <itab> [FROM <wa>] [INDEX <idx>] [TRANSPORTING <f1> ... <fn> [WHERE <condition>]].

Modifies the line in the table. For tables with a header line the source area can be omitted. With INDEX option, will be modified the line which has the index <idx>. In this case: SY-SUBRC = 4 if no line with <idx> exists; SY-SUBRC = 0 - success.
Use MODIFY without the INDEX option is allowed only within a LOOP - ENDLOOP loop by modifying the current line (i.e. the line which has the index returned by SY-TABIX).
With the TRANSPORTING option, the system transports only the components <f1> ... <fn> from the work area into the internal table. Strongly recommended suppress unnecessary transports of fields which are internal tables itself. You can specify a component dynamically by writing (<name>). In this case, the system reads the name of the component from field <name> at runtime. An invalid component name leads to a runtime error.
WHERE <condition> with the TRANSPORTING option determines all the lines of the table into which the components <f1> ... <fn> are to be transported. First operand should be a component of the internal table's line structure. WHERE cannot be used together with the INDEX option.

WRITE <f>[+<o1>][(<l1>)] TO <itab>[+<o2>][(<l2>)] INDEX <idx>.

Variant of WRITE TO. Overwrites the section of the line of the <itab> that has index <idx>. Does not affect header line. Does not recognize the structure of table lines. Return codes: SY-SUBRC = 4 - no line with <idx> exists; SY-SUBRC = 0 - success. If <idx> <= 0 - runtime error.

Deleting lines:

DELETE <itab>.

Deletes current line in LOOP - ENDLOOP (that is line which have index SY-TABIX). After the first line has been deleted, the current line and its assignment to the contents of SY-TABIX can be undefined. To process further lines within this loop, use only statements with the INDEX option.

DELETE <itab> INDEX <idx>.

Deletes line with the index <idx>. Return codes: SY-SUBRC = 4 - no line with <idx> exists; SY-SUBRC = 0 - success.

DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES FROM <itab> [COMPARING {<f1> ... <f1>|ALL FIELDS}].

Deletes adjacent duplicates entries. Return codes: SY-SUBRC = 0 - at least one entry was deleted; SY-SUBRC = 4 - otherwise. Without the COMPARING option, the contents of the standard key fields must be the same.

DELETE <itab> [FROM <n1>] [TO <n2>] [WHERE <condition>].

Deletes selected entries. At least one of three criteria should be used. First operand in WHERE should be a component of the internal table's line structure. Return codes: SY-SUBRC = 0 - at least one entry was deleted; SY-SUBRC = 4 - otherwise.


Clearing Table.

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You can check whether an internal table is empty using logical expression:
... <itab> IS INITIAL ...

REFRESH <itab>.

Empties internal table.

CLEAR <itab>[].

Empties internal table without clearing the table work area.

CLEAR <itab>.

Empties internal table that has no table work area (header line).
Clears the table work area if the table has it.

FREE <itab>.

Empties internal table and releases reserved memory without clearing the table work area.


Other Operations With Internal Table.

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SORT <itab> [<order>] [AS TEXT]
  [BY <f1> [<order>] [AS TEXT] ... <fn> [<order>] [AS TEXT]].

<order>: ASCENDING (default) or DESCENDING. Sorts by standard or self-defined (if BY defined) key. The system uses the options you specify before BY as a default for all fields specified behind BY. The options that you specify after individual fields overwrite for these fields the options specified before BY.
<f1> ... <fn> can be:

·         of any type, including type P, I, and F fields, or tables;

·         up to 250;

·         (<name>) instead of <f> (See also). The <name> contains the name of the field <f>. If <name> is empty at runtime, the system ignores it. If it contains an invalid component name, a runtime error occurs.;

·         table field name with Offset/Length specification;

Without the option AS TEXT, the system sorts character fields binarily and according to their platform-dependent internal coding. With the option AS TEXT, the system sorts character fields alphabetically according to the current text environment. By default, the text environment is set in the user's master record. As an exception, you can set the text environment with the SET LOCALE LANGUAGE. The option AS TEXT frees you from converting a character field into a sortable format before sorting. Such a conversion is only necessary, if you want to

·         sort an internal table alphabetically first and search it binarily afterwards. The order of an internal table after alphabetical sorting differs from the order after binary sorting.

·         sort an internal table several times with alphabetical keys. In this case, the performance is better, because the conversion is processed only once;

·         create alphabetical indexes for database tables in your program.

AS TEXT before BY influences only the character fields in the sort key. If you specify AS TEXT after a field name, this field must be of type C. Sorting is not stable. This means that the old sequence of lines with the same sort key may not necessarily be retained. If there is not enough space for sorting in the main memory, the system writes data into a temporary external file. The name of this file is defined in the SAP profile parameter DIR_SORTTMP.

Searching Internal Tables for Character String:

SEARCH <itab> FOR <str> [<options>].

Options and patterns like searching string for string. No type conversion is performed also (the entire table line is treated as character string). <itab> is always table, not header line, if even the table has header line. In addition to SY-SUBRC and SY-FDPOS, SY-TABIX is set to found line index.

Logical Expressions:

... <itab1> {EQ|=|NE|<>|><|GE|>=|LE|<=|GT|>|LT|<} <itab2> ...
The first criterion for comparing internal tables is the number of lines they contain. The more lines an internal table contains, the larger it is. If two internal tables contain the same number of lines, they are compared line by line, component by component. If components of the table lines are themselves internal tables, they are compared recursively. If you use operators other than the equality operator, the system stops the comparison as soon as it finds a pair of components which are not equal and returns the result. In the case of internal tables with a header line, you can use square brackets ([]) after the table name to distinguish the table body from the table work area.

Assignment Operator:

MOVE <itab1> TO <itab2>.
[COMPUTE] <itab2> = <itab1>.

Copies entire contens of internal table that has not header line.

MOVE <itab1>[] TO <itab2>[].
[COMPUTE] <itab2>[] = <itab1>[].

Copies entire contens of internal table with header line.


RANGES.

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RANGES <range> FOR <f>.

This is a short form of
DATA: BEGIN OF <range> OCCURS 10,
    SIGN(1),
    OPTION(2),
    LOW LIKE <f>,
    HIGH LIKE <f>,
END OF <range>.

Creates a selection table <range> which refers to the column of database field <f> or to an internal field <f>. The <range> has the same structure as Selection Options internal table, but the are not part of the selection screen and are not linked to a database table.

SIGN

OPTION

LOW

HIGH

  • I - inclusion;
  • E - exclusion.

Logical operators:

  • EQ, NE, GT, GE, LE, LT, CP, NP - if HIGH is empty;
  • BT (between), NB (not between) - if HIGH is not empty.
  • Single value - if HIGH is empty;
  • Lower limit - if HIGH is not empty.

Upper limit or empty


Selection Screens.


Parameters.

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PARAMETERS <parm>[(<length>)] <type> [<decimals>].

Creates a parameter <parm>. The additions length, type, and decimals are the same as for DATA. Cannot have type F. Comments on the left side of the input fields can be changed using Selection Texts.
Other additions:

·         DEFAULT <f> - can be either a literal or a field name. Default values transported before INITIALIZATION. Therefore, default can be only fields which are already filled when the user starts the program (e.g. SY-...);

·         NO-DISPLAY - hides parameter. To hide a parameter only under certain conditions declare it without NO-DISPLAY suppress its display by using MODIFY SCREEN.

·         LOWER CASE - allows accept lower case. Cannot be used if a parameter references a dictionary fields which has its own attributes;

·         OBLIGATORY

·         AS CHECKBOX - creates a checkbox (type C(1)). Cannot have TYPE|LIKE addition. Valid values are ' ' and 'X'.
Note. Using LIKE to refer to an ABAP/4 Dictionary field of type CHAR of length 1 and valid values 'X' and ' ' (defined in the field's domain) automatically creates a checkbox on the selection screen;

·         RADIOBUTTON GROUP <radi> - creates a radiobutton and assigns it to the group <radi> (length of the <radi> cannot be > 4). Can have LIKE refering to C(1). Valid values are ' ' and 'X'. If no DEFAULT addition exists then first radiobutton in group will be 'X';

·         MEMORY ID <pid> - uses a default value from the global SAP memory (SPA/GPA parameters). <pid> can be up to 3 characters long and must not be enclosed in quotation marks. You use the global SAP memory to pass values retained beyond transaction limits between programs. This memory is available to a user for the entire duration of a terminal session and any parallel sessions use the same memory. The SAP memory is thus more comprehensive than the transaction-bound Data Clusters in ABAP/4 memory. See the TPARA table ("Directory of Memory IDs") for all system Memory IDs. Parameters can be set user specific in the user's master records with the name <pid>. See also SET/GET PARAMETER.

·         MATCHCODE OBJECT <mobj> - assigns matchcode object from Data Dictionary to the parameter. <mobj> should be 4 characters long and must not be enclosed in quotation marks. If you use this option, the possible entries pushbutton ->appears after the input field of the parameter (? not always). When the user presses this button, the effect is to perform a matchcode selection for the input field

·         MODIF ID <key> - assigns the parameter to a modification group. <key> should be 3 characters long and must not be enclosed in quotation marks. The MODIF ID option always assigns <key> to the column SCREEN-GROUP1 of the internal table SCREEN. Parameters assigned to a modification group can be processed as an entire group with the LOOP AT SCREEN/MODIFY SCREEN statements during the AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT event;

·         logical database specific additions.


Selection Options.

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SELECT-OPTIONS <selopt> FOR <fgt;.

Creates a selection table <selopt> for the column <f> of a database table or for an internal field <seltab>. The database table must be declared with TABLES. The <selopt> name can be up to 8 characters. Cannot have type F. Comments on the left side of the input fields can be changed using Selection Texts.
The <selopt> has the same format as RANGE tables. Additions the same as for PARAMETERS:

·         NO-DISPLAY

·         LOWER CASE

·         OBLIGATORY

·         MEMORY ID <pid>

·         MATCHCODE OBJECT <mobj>

·         MODIF ID <key>

Specific additions:

·         DEFAULT <f1> [TO <f2>] [OPTION <option>] [SIGN <sign>] - fills 1st line of <selopt> with default value or interval (if both <f1> and <f2>). <f1> and <f2> can be either a literal or a field name. Default values transported before INITIALIZATION. Therefore, default can be only fields which are already filled when the user starts the program (e.g. SY-...).
<option>:

o        single values - EQ, NE, GE, GT, LE, LT, CP, or NP. The default value is EQ;

o        intervals - BT or NB. The default value is BT.

<sign> = I|E (Incllude|Exclude). The default value is I;

·         NO-EXTENSION - forbids multiple selection(->);

·         NO INTERVALS - hides TO-field (but an interval is still can be selected using the ->button. Use the function module SELECT_OPTIONS_RESTRICT to completely forbid intervals);

·         NO DATABASE SELECTION - if a logical database is attached to the report program and a selection criterion is connected to a database table, which is also part of the logical database, and if that database table is designated for a dynamic selection, the system transfers the corresponding selection criteria to the logical database. The logical database does not read lines from the database table that do not meet these selection criteria. If you want the logical database to read these lines anyway, for example, when you use the selection criteria for other purposes than limiting database accesses, use the NO DATABASE SELECTION.

·         logical database specific additions.


Selection Screen Formatting.

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SELECTION-SCREEN SKIP [<n>].

Generates <n> blank lines, where <n> = 1..9, 1 is default.

SELECTION-SCREEN ULINE [<format>] [MODIF ID <key>].

Generates an underline.
<format> is [[/]<pos>](<len>): "/" generates a new line and therefore is not allowed inside BEGIN OF LINE...END OF LINE. (<len>) without <pos> uses current position and only allowed inside BEGIN OF LINE...END OF LINE. <pos> can be a number (in this case it is relative to the frame if inside BEGIN OF BLOCK WITH FRAME...END OF BLOCK) or POS_LOW|POS_HIGH.

SELECTION-SCREEN COMMENT <format> <text> [FOR FIELD <f>|<selopt>] [MODIF ID <key>].

Writes <text>:

·         text symbol text-<nnn>;

·         a field name with a maximum length of 8 characters. This character field must not be declared with (for example) the DATA statement, but is generated with length <len> automatically and must be filled dynamically during the INITIALIZATION.

FOR FIELD option has as a result, if the user requests help on the comment on the selection screen, the help text for the assigned field is displayed.

SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF LINE.
    ...
SELECTION-SCREEN END OF LINE.

Places several elements on a single line. Note that the selection text (name of the parameter or text element) is not displayed when this option used. To display a selection text COMMENT option must be used.

SELECTION-SCREEN POSITION <pos>.

<pos> can be a number (in this case it is relative to the frame if inside BEGIN OF BLOCK WITH FRAME...END OF BLOCK) or POS_LOW|POS_HIGH.

SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF BLOCK <block> [WITH FRAME [TITLE <text>]] [NO INTERVALS].
    ...
SELECTION-SCREEN END OF BLOCK <block>.

Creates a logical block. Blocks can be nested. Only 5 blocks with frames can be nested. NO INTERVALS displays all SELECT-OPTIONS within the block as with NO INTERVALS addition; inherited by subordinate blocks with frames and does not by subordinates blocks without frames.


Selection Screen Events.

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INITIALIZATION.

Executes a processing block before the selection screen is processed. In this block you initialize the selection screen. This is also the only possibility to change the default values of parameters or selection criteria defined in logical databases. You can find out the names of the internal fields you want to change either by examining the logical database SAPDB<ldb> itself (with the transaction SLDB or by choosing Tools->ABAP/4 Development Workbench->Development->Programming environ.->Logical databases), or by retrieving the technical information of that field.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN.

Executes a processing block after the system has finished processing the selection screen. If an error|warning message is sent from this processing block, the system displays the selection screen again and all input fields can be changed.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON <parm>|<selopt>.

Executes a processing block after the system has finished processing the <parm>|<selopt>. If an error|warning message is sent from this processing block, the system displays the selection screen again and only this input field can be changed.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON END OF <selopt>.

Executes a processing block at the end of processing Multiple Selection Window ->of the <selopt>. Can be used to check the entries in the internal table <selopt>. Both the E and W messages are sent in dialog window.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON BLOCK <block>.

Executes a processing block after the system has finished processing the <block>. If an error|warning message is sent from this processing block, the system displays the selection screen again and only the input fields in the <block> can be changed.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON RADIOBUTTON GROUP <radi>.

Executes a processing block after the system has finished processing the <radi>. If an error|warning message is sent from this processing block, the system displays the selection screen again and only the radiobutton group <radi> can be changed.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON VALUE-REQUEST FOR <parm>|<selopt>.

The possible entries button \/automatically appears next to the input field for <parm>|<selopt> when it is selected on the selection screen. Executes a processing block which allows user to choice a value from a list when user presses the button or F4. Can be used only in report programs, not in a logical database program.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON HELP-REQUEST FOR <parm>|<selopt>.

Executes a processing block which displays a help text when user presses F1 or the button ?on the selected <parm>|<selopt>. Can be used only in report programs, not in a logical database program.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT.

Executes a processing block during the PBO of a selection screen for each ENTER. For example, here can be applied a modifications to the screen:

LOOP AT SCREEN.
    ....
    MODIFY SCREEN.
ENDLOOP.

To change at runtime attributes of screen fields. SCREEN is memory table which automatically created and maintained by system (with header line). The structure of the SCREEN:

Name

Length

Description

NAME

30

Name of the screen field

GROUP1

3

Modification group 1

GROUP2

3

Modification group 2

GROUP3

3

Modification group 3

GROUP4

3

Modification group 4

ACTIVE

1

Visible and ready for input

REQUIRED

1

Mandatory

INPUT

1

Ready for input

OUTPUT

1

For display only

INTENSIFIED

1

Highlighted

INVISIBLE

1

Supressed

LENGTH

1

Output length is reduced

DISPLAY_3D

1

Displayed with 3D frames

VALUE_HELP

1

Displayed with value help

To activate a field attribute, set its value to 1. To deactivate it, set it to 0. If ACTIVE = 0, then system sets INVISIBLE = 1 and INPUT = 0, and user can neither see the field nor enter values into it.


Field Symbols.


Defining Field Symbols.

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Concept.

Field symbols are placeholders for existing fields. A field symbol does not physically reserve space for a field, but points (like a pointer in C) to a field which is not known until runtime of the program. But Field Symbols are not real equivalent to pointers in the sense of variables which contain a memory address and can be used without the contents operator. You can only work with the data object to which a field symbol points. A field must first be assigned to field symbol before working with it in the program. Assignments to field symbols may extend beyond field boundaries. This allows effective access to regularly stored data. At runtime, the system performs checks to prevent erroneous assignments outside the defined data areas:

·         The table storage area for internal tables. Its size depends on the number of table lines which is not fixed, but often extended dynamically at runtime;

·         The DATA storage area for other data objects. Its size is fixed during the data declaration and equal to sum of all data objects sizes.

Field symbols cannot point to addresses outside these areas. If the system encounters this at runtime, it stops processing the program.
Note. Certain system information, such as the control blocks of internal tables, is also stored in the DATA storage area. Therefore, despite the runtime checks, you may unintentionally overwrite some of these fields and cause subsequent errors (e.g. destruction of the table header).

Defining Field Symbols for Internal Fields.

FIELD-SYMBOLS <FS> [<type>].
For field symbols, the angle brackets are part of the syntax.

<type>

Syntax check for field assignment.

No type specification,
TYPE ANY

System accepts any field type and uses all attributes and structure of the field for the <FS>

TYPE TABLE

System accepts only an internal table uses all attributes of the table for the <FS>

TYPE C, N, P, X

System accepts only an appropriate field type. The <FS> inherits field length (and DECIMALS for P)

TYPE D, F, I, T
LIKE <f>
TYPE <user-defined-type>

System accepts only completely compatible field type.

Defining Structured Field Symbols.

FIELD-SYMBOLS <FS> STRUCTURE <fstring> DEFAULT <f>.
Defines a structured <FS> which points initially to the field <f> (this assignment can be changed later). The <FS> inherits the structure of <fstring>, which can be any field string or a structure defined in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. <fstring> and <f> must be specified without quotation marks. Specification at runtime is not allowed. If <fstring> contains no components of type I or F, <f> can be any internal field with at least the same length as the structure <fstring>. If <f> is shorter than <fstring>, an error occurs during the syntax check. This will be also while assigning later in program. Dynamic assignment causes a runtime error. If <fstring> contains components of type I or F (that is this structure is aligned), then the data object must also be aligned accordingly, otherwise a runtime error occurs.

Defining Local Field Symbols.

If <fstring> id defined in a subroutine or function module then each time the subroutine or function module is called, no field is assigned to the local field symbol, even if an ASSIGN was executed the previous time.


Assigning Data Objects to Field Symbols.

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Assigning Data Objects.

Static Assignment:

·         ASSIGN [LOCAL COPY OF] <f>[+<o>][(<l>)] TO <FS> [TYPE <type>] [DECIMALS <d>].
<o> and <l> can be variables. If no offset and length defined, then <FS> points to the same memory area as <f>. <o> and <l> can refer to addresses beyond <f>. Defaults: <o>=0, <l>=length of <f>. If <o> is smaller than length of <f> then (*) can be used for <l> to prevent <FS> from referring addresses beyond <f>.

Dinamic Assignment:

·         ASSIGN [LOCAL COPY OF] (<n>) TO <FS> [TYPE <type>] [DECIMALS <d>].
Offset cannot be specified. Order of search for the field's name <n>:

1.     Local Data of the Subroutine or Function Module;

2.     Global Data of the Program;

3.     Table work areas declared with the TABLES statement in the main program of the current program group. A program group consists of a main program and all programs containing definitions of the external subroutines called by the main program (including nested ones).

This type of search has very adverse effect on response times. Return code: SY-SUBRC=0 if success, otherwise SY-SUBRC=4.

·         ASSIGN [LOCAL COPY OF] TABLE FIELD (<n>) TO <FS> [TYPE <type>] [DECIMALS <d>].
Performs only Step 3 from previous operation. Return code: SY-SUBRC=0 if success, otherwise SY-SUBRC=4.

Assigning Field Symbols to Other Field Symbols.

Static Assignment:

·         ASSIGN [LOCAL COPY OF] <FS1>[+<o>][(<l>)] TO <FS2> [TYPE <type>] [DECIMALS <d>].

Dinamic Assignment:

·         ASSIGN [LOCAL COPY OF] [TABLE FIELD] (<n>) TO <FS2> [TYPE <type>] [DECIMALS <d>].
The field <n> contains the name of field symbol <FS2>. <FS1> and <FS2> can be identical.

Assigning Components of Field Strings.

·         ASSIGN COMPONENT <component> OF STRUCTURE <fstring> TO <FS> [TYPE <type>] [DECIMALS <d>].
If <component> is of type C or a field string which has no internal tables as components - it specifies the name of the component. If <component> has other type - it is converted to type I and specifies the number of the component in the <fstring>. Return code: SY-SUBRC=0 if success, otherwise SY-SUBRC=4.

Additions:

·         TYPE <type> - <type> can be literal or variable. Overrides type of field <f> for untyped field symbols (in this case <type> must be Elementary Data Type). For typed field symbols used if the <f> is uncompatible with type of <FS> and runtime error must be avoided. In this case <type> and type of <FS> must be compatible.

·         DECIMALS <d> - defines number of decimal places in <FS>. A runtime error occurs if <f> is not of P type, or <d> is not between 0 and 14.

·         LOCAL COPY OF - used in subroutines. The system places a copy of the specified global data on the stack. In the subroutine, you can access and change this copy without changing the global data.


Modularization.


Branches and Loops.

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IF

CASE

IF <condition1>.
    <statement block>
ELSEIF <condition2>.
    <statement block>
......
ELSE.
    <statement block>
ENDIF.

CASE <f>.
  WHEN <f1>.
    <statement block>
  WHEN <f2>.
    <statement block>
......
  WHEN OTHERS.
    <statement block>
ENDCASE.

Unlimited nesting is allowed. An EVENT keyword may not be inside of block.

DO

WHILE

DO [<n> TIMES] [VARYING <f> FROM <f1> NEXT <f2>].
    <statement block>
......
[CONTINUE.]
[EXIT.]
[CHECK <condition>.
    <statement block>]
ENDDO.

WHILE <condition> [VARY <f> FROM <f1> NEXT <f2>].
    <statement block>
......
[CONTINUE.]
[EXIT.]
[CHECK <condition>.
    <statement block>]
ENDWHILE.

Unlimited nesting is allowed. An EVENT keyword may not be inside of block.
<n> can be literal or a variable. If <n> <=0, the system does not process the loop.
SY-INDEX contains the number of times the loop has been processed.
<f>, <f1>, <f2> must be a series of equidistant fields of the same type and length in memory. In the first loop pass, <f1> is assigned to <f>; in the second loop pass <f2> is assigned to <f>; and so on. Several VARYING|VARY options can be used in one DO|WHILE statement. If you change the control variable <f> inside the DO loop, the system changes the corresponding field <fi> automatically. If loop processed more times than the number of variables <fi>, this may result in a runtime error.

Terminating Loops.

CONTINUE.

Terminates a loop pass immediately without any condition, continues with the next loop pass.

EXIT.

Acts in following sequence:

1.     Terminates a loop entirely without any condition and continues the processing after the closing statement (ENDDO, ENDWHILE, ENDSELECT). Within nested loops, leaves the current loop;

2.     Leaves the current AT processing block and branches to the processing block of the next occurring event;

3.     Leaves any processing block (except of AT events) immediately and branch to the output screen;

4.     Terminates a subroutine without any condition.

CHECK <condition>.

Acts in following sequence:

1.     For a loop, if the condition is false, skips all the remaining statements in the current statement block and continues with the next loop pass;

2.     For GET event, if the condition is false, equivalent to REJECT. (Leaves the processing block of a GET event and processes the next GET event at the same hierarchical level of the logical database.);

3.     For processing block, if the condition is false, leaves the processing block and branches to the processing block of the next occurring event;

4.     For a subroutine, if the condition is false, terminates the subroutine.


Events.

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All statements between two event keywords or between an event keyword and a FORM statement are a processing block. When an event occurs, the system processes the processing block after the corresponding event keyword. Each statement in an ABAP/4 report program is part of a processing block or a subroutine. Statements which do not follow an event keyword or a FORM-ENDFORM block are automatically part of the processing block of the default event START-OF-SELECTION.
Note. All statements between an ENDFORM statement and an event keyword or between an ENDFORM statement and the end of the program are never processed. Do not place any statements there. Place all subroutines at the end of your program.

Events that occur at runtime of a report program which
    uses logical databases, or
    has selection screens and processes tables (exept GET events):

INITIALIZATION.

Point before the selection screen is displayed.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN.

Point after processing user input on the selection screen while the selection screen is still active.

START-OF-SELECTION.

Point after processing the selection screen and before accessing database tables using a logical database.

GET <table> [FIELDS <f1> <f2> ...].

Point at which the logical database (LDB) offers a line of the database table <table>. The LDB reads all columns from all database tables which are not designated for field selection in the LDB and which are superior to <table> on the access path of the LDB, even if GET for these tables are not specified. However, only the data of tables declared by TABLES can be accessed. From tables that are not declared by TABLES system reads only the key fields (the LDB needs the key fields to built up the access path).

GET <table> LATE [FIELDS <f1> <f2> ...].

Point after processing all tables which are hierarchically subordinate to the database table <table> in the structure of the logical database.

END-OF-SELECTION.

Point after processing all lines offered by the logical database.

The following events occur during the processing of the output list of a report program:

Events Control in Interactive Lists.

Terminating Events Processing Blocks:

STOP.

Leaves any processing block immediately and branches to the END-OF-SELECTION processing block.

REJECT [<dbtab>].

·         Leaves the processing block of a GET event and processes the next GET event of a superior hierarchical level of the logical database <dbtab>

·         Leaves the processing block of a GET event and processes the next GET event at the same hierarchical level of the logical database.

See also:

EXIT, CHECK.


Dialogs.

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Source Code Modules.

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Using Macros.

DEFINE <macro>.
    <statements>
END-OF-DEFINITION.

Defines <macro>. The <statements> can contain up to 9 placeholders: &1, &2, ... &9.

<macro> [<p1> <p2> ... <p9>].

Calls <macro> (System replaced macro during generation of the program). Macro can call another macro, but cannot call itself.

Using Include Programs.

INCLUDE <name_of_include_program>

Inserts the source code <name_of_include_program> into the ABAP/4 program during the syntax check and during generation.

·         INCLUDE statement must be whole on one line and only on this line;

·         The INCLUDE program must consist of complete statements (and comments);

Service report RSINCL00 can be used to generate reference list for included programs.


Subroutines.

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Defining Subroutines.

FORM <subroutine> [<parameters>].
    <statements>
ENDFORM.

Calling Subroutines.

Internal subroutines have the source code in the calling ABAP/4 program:

PERFORM <subroutine> [<parameters>].

PERFORM (<subrname>) [<parameters>].

Specifies the subroutine name at runtime.

PERFORM <subroutine> ON COMMIT [LEVEL <n>].

Calls the subroutine later on a first encountered COMMIT WORK statement. The subroitine is called only once even if call performed many times. LEVEL <n> (literal or constant, default is 0) defines order of execution of subroutines on COMMIT WORK. The subroutines are called in ascending level order, or in order of calls if level the same.

External subroutines have the source code in another ABAP/4 program:

PERFORM <subroutine>(<program>) [<parameters>] [IF FOUND].

PERFORM <subroutine> IN PROGRAM <program> [<parameters>] [IF FOUND].

IF FOUND - call subroutine only if found in program, otherwise skip call.

PERFORM (<subrname>) IN PROGRAM (<progname>) [<parameters>] [IF FOUND].

Specifies the subroutine and/or program names at runtime.

PERFORM <idx> OF <form2> ... <formn>.

Calls a subroutine that has index <idx> (literal or variable) from the list.

Passing Data to/from Subroutines.

Declaring Data as Common Part.

DATA: BEGIN OF COMMON PART [<name>].
    <data declaration>
END OF COMMON PART [<name>].

<name> is needed if several common parts used. It is better way to use common parts placed in INCLUDE. Table work areas defined in TABLES are common automatically.

Parameters.

[TABLES <list of internal tables with or without header line>]
[USING <list of parameters - all data types (including internal tables) and|or field symbols>]
[CHANGING <list of parameters - all data types (including internal tables) and|or field symbols>]

Actual parameters can be specified with variable offset and length specifications.

Methods of Passing Data Using Parameters:

By Reference.

FORM ...

 [USING <fi1> ... <fin>]

 [CHANGING <fo1> ... <fon>] ...

PERFORM ...

 [USING <ai1> ... <ain>]

 [CHANGING <ao1> ... <aon>] ...

In this case USING and CHANGING are equivalent.

By Value.

FORM ...

 USING ...

 VALUE(<fii>) ...

PERFORM ...

 USING ...

  <aii> ...

New local object <fii> created and processed for each call.

By Value and Result.

FORM ...

 CHANGING ...

 VALUE(<fii>) ...

PERFORM ...

 CHANGING ...

  <aii> ...

New local object <fii> created and processed for each call. Only when the subroutine has completed successfully, system pass the current value of <fii> to <aii>. If the subroutine processing is stopped because of a dialog message, the actual parameter <aii> remains unchanged.

Typing Formal Parameters:

Type of a formal parameter can be specified in the FORM statement using TYPE <type> or LIKE <object> after this parameter in the TABLES, USING, or CHANGING lists. While PERFORM system checks types compatibility of the actual and formal parameters. The compatibility rules are the same as for Field Symbols assignment. There are no type conversions. If types are incompatible, the system outputs an error message during the syntax check for internal subroutine calls or reacts with a runtime error in the case of external subroutine calls.

Passing Fields Strings:

To pass a field string into subroutine and access components of this field string in this subroutine - type of the field string must be specified. For internal subroutines - directly, for external - also in the program where the called subroutine placed (can be done using Type Groups, Includes or ABAP/4 Dictionary Structures).

Passing Internal Tables:

Can be passed after TABLES (always be Reference), USING or CHANGING. Type must be specified also for access components separately (as for Field Strings). If actual parameter table has no header line, but formal parameter table with header line, the header line will be automatically created in the subroutine for this table.

Defining Local Data in Subroutines.

Dynamic Local Data Types and Objects.

TYPES, DATA - define automatic objects that newly created for each call and deleted after exit.

Static Local Data Types and Objects.

STATICS - defines static objects that initialized for first call and keep their values after exit.

LOCAL <f>.

Preserves the value of a global data object from being changed inside a subroutine (for example, a work area of a database table defined using TABLES). Instead a local copy of the <f> used inside of subroutine.

Terminating Subroutines.

See EXIT, CHECK.


Function Modules.

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Interfaces:

Import parameter:

Import interface
Pass data from the calling program to the function module. Cannot be overwritten, even when passed by reference.

Export parameters:

Export interface
Pass data from the function module back to the calling program. Always optional.

CHANGING parameter:

Change interface
Passed by reference or by value and result. Act simultaneously as import and export parameters. They change the value passed to the function module and return it to the calling program.

Table parameters:

Table interface
Internal tables. Treated like changing parameters and are always passed by reference.

Exception:

Exceptions interface
Used to handle error scenarios which can occur in function modules.

Proposal - default value for optional parameters.
Reference field|structure, Reference type - used for typing of formal parameters.

Calling Function Modules:
CALL FUNCTION <module_name>
    [EXPORTING <f1> = <a1> ... <fn> = <an>]
    [IMPORTING <f1> = <a1> ... <fn> = <an>]
    [CHANGING <f1> = <a1> ... <fn> = <an>]
    [TABLES <f1> = <a1> ... <fn> = <an>]
    [EXCEPTIONS <e1> = <r1> ... <en> = <rn> [ERROR_MESSAGE = <rE>] [OTHER = <rO>]].

EXPORTING - the formal parameters must be declared as import parameters in the function module.
IMPORTING - the formal parameters must be declared as export parameters in the function module.
EXCEPTIONS - <ri> is a numeric literal that is assigned to SY-SUBRC if the exception is raised. <rE> is used for additional exception ERROR_MESSAGE if a message of types A, E was issued in the function module without RAISING option.
OTHERS - used to handle all exceptions that are not specified explicitly in the list. The same number <ri> can be used for several exceptions.

Programming Function Modules:
FUNCTION <module_name>
    ....
    RAISE <exception>.
    ....
    MESSAGE ... RAISING <exception>.
    ....
ENDFUNCTION.

If an internal subroutine is needed, the program code of internal subroutines can be placed directly behind the ENDFUNCTION statement of a module. This subroutines can be called from all modules of the function group, but for clarity, should be called only from the function module behind which it is written.
To create internal subroutines that can be called from all modules of one function group <fgrp>, use special INCLUDE programs L<fgrp>F<xx>. You can open these INCLUDE programs easily by double clicking their names in the main program SAPL<fgrp> after selecting Main program on the Function Library->Maintain Function Modules screen.


See also:


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